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Two dimensional (2D) materials are extremely interesting for a wide range of applications due to their transferability, their scaling properties, and their unique electrical, photonic and mechanical properties.
2D materials such as graphene, the transition metal dichalcogenides (e.g. MoS2 and WSe2), and phosphorene present opportunities for exciting new applications, including post-CMOS electronics, lightweight high-strength composites, flexible sensors, electrodes for energy storage and conversion, ultrathin gas barriers for reliability improvement, printable inks, and heat dissipation, especially for low temperature materials like plastics.
Since no single material is optimal for all applications, multiple materials must be explored. For example, graphene is very attractive for sensors and optical modulators, but it lacks a natural band gap, making it impractical for logic transistors.
To produce 2D materials, investigators typically exfoliate sheets from solid samples, generating small fragments with varying thicknesses that are placed randomly on patterned substrates. High-quality 2D materials are made by directly depositing 2D material on a wafer. This requires a custom deposition system and unique processes for each material.
MINIC is supported in part by the National Science Foundation's NNCI program.