Mark W. Kroll

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Mark W. Kroll

Adjunct Professor,
Department of Biomedical Engineering
  • BS, Mathematics, University of Minnesota, 1975

  • MS, Electrical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1983

  • PhD, Electrical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1987

  • MBA, University of St. Thomas, 1990

Professional Background
Research Interests
Surgeons in an operating room


My research colleagues and I focus on electrical stimulation for therapeutic and defense purposes.

We have developed “medium voltage therapy” which refers to the use of voltages between those of pacemakers and defibrillators. Our defibrillation research focuses on more efficient waveforms and also on lower pain and lower damage waveforms. Also working on electrical therapies for both cancerous and benign tumors.

Defense work has included electrical repulsion systems to keep terrorists away from ships and to keep sharks away from beaches. A major area of defense research is with electrical weapons to maximize effectiveness while minimizing the risk of electrocution.

Presently also active in electrical safety, electrical injury, and electrocution research. Sit on International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) committee that sets the basic electrical safety limits for the world.

"Papers and patents are an obvious way of contributing to biomedical science. However, I get my greatest satisfaction when the science helps a fellow human being. Hence, I spend a lot of my time sharing the science with practicing physicians so that it eventually gets to the patient. Papers, patents, and patients are the 3 legs of the stool!"

-Mark Kroll